Boris Abelevich Kaufman, A.S.C. was a cinematographer. He was the younger brother of filmmakers Dziga Vertov and Mikhail Kaufman. Kaufman was born into a family of Jewish intellectuals living in Białystok at the time when Congress Poland was a part of the Russian Empire. After the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, Poland regained its independence, and Boris moved there with his parents. Mikhail and Denis stayed in the Soviet Union and became notable Soviet filmmakers producing avant-garde and agitprop films. The three brothers later stayed in touch mainly by way of letters; Vertov visited Boris Kaufman in Paris twice, in 1929 and 1931. After graduating from the University of Paris, Boris turned to cinematography. He collaborated with Jean Vigo and later Dimitri Kirsanoff. During World War II, he served in the French Army against the Nazis and when France lost he managed to escape to Canada. After working briefly with John Grierson, for the National Film Board of Canada, Kaufman moved to the United States in 1942. He supported himself shooting short subjects and documentaries until Elia Kazan chose him to shoot his first American feature film, On the Waterfront, for which Kaufman won an Academy Award for Best Cinematography and Golden Globe Award. For the film Baby Doll, Kaufman received a second Oscar nomination.